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Tracking the structural arrangement of ions in carbon supercapacitor nanopores using in situ small-angle X-ray scattering

  • The charge storage mechanism and ion arrangement inside electrically charged carbon nanopores is a very active research field with tremendous importance for advanced electrochemical technologies, such as supercapacitors or capacitive deionization. Going far beyond the state of art, we present for the first time a comprehensive study of tracking ion electrosorption in aqueous electrolytes during charging and discharging of porous carbon electrodes using in situ X-ray scattering. We provide novel and quantitative insights into the local concentration of anions and cations and demonstrate that the global number of ions within the pores does not vary during charging and discharging. In addition, we have unique access to the spatial arrangement of ions inside carbon nanopores by using a simple, yet powerful two-phase model. Applying this model to our data, we show that double-layer formation is accomplished by a unique combination of preferred counter-ion adsorption directly at the pore wall which drains ions from their local surrounding inside carbon nanopores. Effectively, this leads to a situation which globally appears as ion swapping.

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Document Type:Article
Author:Christian PrehalORCiD, Daniel Weingarth, Emilie Perre, Rainer T. Lechner, Heinz AmenitschORCiD, Oskar ParisORCiD, Volker PresserORCiD
Parent Title (English):Energy & Environmental Science
First Page:1725
Last Page:1735
Year of first Publication:2015
Date of final exam:2015/03/17
Release Date:2022/11/18
Impact:25.427 (2015)
Funding Information:The INM is part of the Leibniz Research Alliance Energy Transition (LVE). EP, DW, and VP acknowledge funding from the German Federal Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF) in support of the nanoEES3D project (award number 03EK3013) as part of the strategic funding initiative energy storage framework. EP, DW, and VP thank Prof. Eduard Arzt (INM) for his continuing support. CP and OP gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Austrian Federal Government (in particular from Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie and Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Wirtschaft) represented by Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft mbH and the Styrian and the Tyrolean Provincial Government, represented by Steirische Wirtschaftsförderungsgesellschaft mbH and Standortagentur Tirol, within the framework of the COMET Funding Programme.
Research Departments:Energie-Materialien
Open Access:Open Access
Signature:INM 2015/44
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY - Namensnennung 4.0 International