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Achieving the theoretical limit of strength in shell-based carbon nanolattices

  • Recent developments in mechanical metamaterials exemplify a new paradigm shift called mechanomaterials, in which mechanical forces and designed geometries are proactively deployed to program material properties at multiple scales. Here, we designed shell-based micro-/nanolattices with I-WP (Schoen’s I-graph–wrapped package) and Neovius minimal surface topologies. Following the designed topologies, polymeric microlattices were fabricated via projection microstereolithography or two-photon lithography, and pyrolytic carbon nanolattices were created through two-photon lithography and subsequent pyrolysis. The shell thickness of created lattice metamaterials varies over three orders of magnitude from a few hundred nanometers to a few hundred micrometers, covering a wider range of relative densities than most plate-based micro-/nanolattices. In situ compression tests showed that the measured modulus and strength of our shell-based micro-/nanolattices with I-WP topology are superior to those of the optimized plate-based lattices with cubic and octet plate unit cells and truss-based lattices. More strikingly, when the density is larger than 0.53 g cm−3, the strength of shell-based pyrolytic carbon nanolattices with I-WP topology was found to achieve its theoretical limit. In addition, our shell-based carbon nanolattices exhibited an ultrahigh strength of 3.52 GPa, an ultralarge fracture strain of 23%, and an ultrahigh specific strength of 4.42 GPa g−1 cm3, surpassing all previous micro-/nanolattices at comparable densities. These unprecedented properties can be attributed to the designed topologies inducing relatively uniform strain energy distributions and avoiding stress concentrations as well as the nanoscale feature size. Our study demonstrates a mechanomaterial route to design and synthesize micro-/nanoarchitected materials.

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Document Type:Article
Author:Yujia WangORCiD, Xuan ZhangORCiD, Zihe Li, Huajian GaoORCiD, Xiaoyan LiORCiD
Parent Title (English):Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
First Page:e2119536119
Date of first Publication:2022/08/15
Embargo Date:2023/02/15
Release Date:2023/06/13
Tag:3D fabrication; 3D micro- / nanolattices; mechanical properties of materials; minimal surface
Impact:12.779 (2021)
Funding Information:Nanyang Technological University and Agency for Science, Technology and Research Start-Up Grant 002479-00001. National Natural Science Foundation of China Grants 91963117, 11720101002, and 11921002.
Research Departments:Funktionelle Mikrostrukturen
DDC classes:500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 530 Physik
Open Access:Open Access
Signature:INM 2022/115
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY-NC-ND - Namensnennung - Nicht kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitungen 4.0 International