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Carbide-Derived Niobium Pentoxide with Enhanced Charge Storage Capacity for Use as a Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode

  • Nb2O5 has been explored as a promising anode material for use as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but depending on the crystal structure, the specific capacity was always reported to be usually around or below 200 mAh/g. For the first time, we present coarse-grained Nb2O5 materials that significantly overcome this capacity limitation with the promise of enabling high power applications. Our work introduces coarse-grained carbide-derived Nb2O5 phases obtained either by a one-step or a two-step bulk conversion process. By in situ production of chlorine gas from metal chloride salt at ambient pressure, we obtain in just one step directly orthorhombic Nb2O5 alongside carbide-derived carbon (o-Nb2O5/CDC). In situ formation of chlorine gas from metal chloride salt under vacuum conditions yields CDC covering the remaining carbide core, which can be transformed into metal oxides covered by a carbon shell upon thermal treatment in CO2 gas. The two-step process yielded a mixed-phase tetragonal and monoclinic Nb2O5 with CDC (m-Nb2O5/CDC). Our combined diffraction and spectroscopic data confirm that carbide-derived Nb2O5 materials show disordering of the crystallographic planes caused by oxygen deficiency in the structural units and, in the case of m-Nb2O5/CDC, severe stacking faults. This defect engineering allows access to a very high specific capacity exceeding the two-electron transfer process of conventional Nb2O5. The charge storage capacities of the resulting m-Nb2O5/CDC and o-Nb2O5/CDC are, in both cases, around 300 mAh/g at a specific current of 10 mA/g, thereby, the values are significantly higher than that of the state-of-the-art for Nb2O5 as a LIB anode. Carbide-derived Nb2O5 materials also show robust cycling stability over 500 cycles with capacity fading only 24% for the sample m-Nb2O5/CDC and 28% for o-Nb2O5/CDC, suggesting low degree of expansion/compaction during lithiation and delithiation.

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Document Type:Article
Author:Öznil BudakORCiD, M. Geißler, D. Becker, Angela Kruth, Antje QuadeORCiD, Robert Haberkorn, Guido KickelbickORCiD, Bastian J. M. EtzoldORCiD, Volker PresserORCiD
Parent Title (English):ACS Applied Energy Materials
First Page:4275
Last Page:4285
Publisher:American Chemical Society
Year of first Publication:2020
Release Date:2022/11/18
Tag:carbide-derived oxide; electrochemical energy storage; hybrid material; lithium-ion battery; niobium pentoxide
Impact:06.024 (2020)
Funding Information:Leibniz-Gemeinschaft (SAW 2017) Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (PR-1173/5ET 101/14)
Open Access:Open Access
Signature:INM 2020/047
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - CC BY-NC-ND - Namensnennung - Nicht kommerziell - Keine Bearbeitungen 4.0 International